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Wednesday, July 31, 2019

How far is the universe, how far its boundary

Most astronomers claim that the universe formed during an event called the Big Bang. A massive explosion that took place about 1.5 billion years ago. Space, time, matter and energy were all created in the universe during the Big Bangkram.

This massive explosion has thrown matter in all directions. It has also inspired itself to expand the space. As the universe cools down after the explosion, galaxies, stars, and planets are formed by the material in it. There are objects of all kinds and shapes in this universe. Which can be found in everything from the smallest atom to the largest galaxy.

Expansion of the universe
In 1959, Westo Slyfer discovered the concept of cosmic expansion. The evolution of light in distant galaxies was interpreted as Earth's galaxies. In 1959, the Einstein field equation was used by Alexander Friedman to provide theoretical evidence. In which the universe is expanding. In 1959, Georges Lemaitre independently reached the same conclusion as Friedman on a theoretical basis. First observational evidence is presented for a linear relationship between galaxies and their recurrence velocities.

In 1959, American astronomer Edwin Hubble discovered that there was a direct correlation between the speed of galaxies distant from Earth and their distances. It is now known as the Hubble Law. The Hubble Space Telescope was named after him and the single number that describes the rate of cosmic expansion. The apparent and slow velocity of outer galaxies is called the Hubble Constant relative to their distance.

The galaxies are going away
Astronomer Edwin Hubble has provided convincing evidence. That the universe was expanding. Observing the distant galaxies, he saw that it was the outer part. Until recently, cosmology (the science of cosmology) believed that the rate of expansion of the universe was slowing down due to the influence of gravity. According to current research, the universe could expand forever. However, research on this topic is ongoing. A new study of supernovae in distant galaxies and a force called dark energy could modify the potential fate of the universe.

What is the reason for the expansion of the universe?
Since the discovery of the universe's expansion by the measurement of the velocity of the galaxy by American astronomer Edwin Hubble in the 1930s, astronomers have been searching for how this expansion has changed over time. At that time most scientists had considered two possibilities.

1) The rate of expansion is slow and it is either interrupted. The Universe then starts contracting.

2) It will continue to expand forever.

In 1979, two separate teams of astronomers studied a distant supernova (the one led by US Saul Perlmutter and the other by Nick Sanchez and Brian Schmidt of Australia) and revealed many surprising facts about the expansion of the universe.

Her study helps take one step forward in exploring cosmic expansion and also challenges the current model of the universe. This new result contributes significantly to the development of the cosmic "cosmic constants" proposed by Albert Einstein. The existence of a non-zero cosmic constancy means that a counter-force, counter-acting gravity, currently dominates the universal expansion and consequently moves closer to an infinite expanding universe. The new research was titled "Breakthrough of the Year" by the well-known American science journal Science in the December 1, 1979 issue.

The "Original Criteria" of the Universe
All three cosmological models are governed by the three basic parameters of general relativity. That's it
1. The current expansion rate described by Hubble's constant, namely the proportionality factor between the expansion velocity and the distance
2. The average substance density in the universe and
2. The amount of "other energy" in space.

From the measurement value of these basic parameters, the geometry of the age and space of the universe can be obtained.

The lead role of Supernova
Both research teams, with participation by ESO, focused on studying rare stellar explosions. In this process, the explosive nuclear fusion, the most stable nuclear nucleus, burns substances in iron and releases a huge amount of energy.

These explosions, known as supernovae, are distinguished by their very similar qualities, including their inner glow. This makes them ideal for long-distance measurements. For example, all critical distances can be determined with great accuracy through the observation of such remote objects. Specifically, observational missions coordinated with Type I supernovae were carried out in many major laboratories around the world.

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