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Showing posts with label Physics. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Physics. Show all posts

Friday, December 20, 2019

Michael Faraday: Greatest Grandfather of Modern Electrical Chemistry

When we study the earlier life story of Michael faraday it is hard for people to believe that he has become a distinguished scientist in history. He was one of the greatest generators of modern electricity and he influenced and inspired thousands of veterans, including Einstein.

Renowned physicist Ernest Rutherford has said that when we think about the vastness of his inventions and the impact he has had on the development of science and industry, there is nothing like remembering Faraday, one of the greatest inventions of all time. We must say thanks to Faraday for modern electric motors, generators, and transformers.
Faraday was born on September 5, 1949, in Nuddington, England. He was born into a poor family. She was the third child of James and Margaret Faraday. His father, who was physically ill, was an iron smith. Faraday's mother was also a pre-maid servant. They were extremely poor.

At that time, parents had to pay their first child for an expensive schooling, and even then it was common practice for a young child. But Faraday's parents were of a normal family, with Faraday the third of four children. So he received a very limited and limited initial education. But that didn't hinder his way of becoming the greatest scientist of the future. She raised the learning curve for herself.

Michael Faraday attended local schools until the age of 3 and received basic education. From the age of six, he worked at a bookstore to help his poor parents. He worked hard and the bookstore made Sahu happy. A bookie who was happy with her hard work, promoted her to do bookbinding.

To get the book binding done for Faraday was like, 'You cheat, I'll deliver'. She was happy. It was also an opportunity for him to gain world knowledge. During the leisure hours he would read the three books he had been eagerly pursuing. Gradually, his interest in reading books related to science increased. He read many books on science. But among them his most favorite books were Encyclop ब्रिटdia Britannica and Conversion on Chemistry. While he acquired electronic knowledge from the Encyclopानdia Britannica, a four-page book called Conversation on Chemistry served to eradicate his curiosity and hunger for chemistry and to widen his horizons of knowledge.

How eager he was to read scientific material and to know its facts, a portion of his earnings was spent on chemicals to discover the reality of what he was reading.

One day while he was studying with a keen interest in science, he heard that then-renowned scientist Jose Tatum had come to give a series of discourses about natural philosophy under physics. The charge to hear the sermon was a ceiling, which was difficult for Faraday to pay. But his older brother, who was an iron maker himself, paid all the fees for listening to that sermon because of his brother's interest in science.

Another interesting turning point in Faraday's life came when one of his working bookstore clients, William Dance, saw Faraday's interest in science and arranged a ticket to hear a sermon by then-Humphrey Davies at the Royal Institute. What it looks like for Faraday is like Kana, the eyes.

Sir Humphrey Davy was one of the world-renowned scientists at that time. He took advantage of the opportunity provided by the Dance as a Client to listen to Davey's four sermons. His lecture was about 'explaining acidity', a new problem that appeared in the science world at that time. He took a serious look at Sir Davie's experiments during his sermon.

In fact, that was the dream world Faraday wanted to live. He notes Davie's sermon. He added so much to the note that it later became a six-page handwritten book. He made that note using his bookbinding skills and sent it to Sir Davey as a gift.

By this time, Faraday had begun to experiment a little more in the backyard of his working bookstore. He was using copper coins and zinc plates to separate electric paper and use it to make electric batteries. He used that battery to dissolve chemicals such as magnesium sulfate. This was a kind of chemistry that Sir Humphrey Davy had mastered.

On October 7, the owner of Faraday's bookstore changed. Faraday didn't like that new owner.

In the meantime, a new opportunity has come for Faraday. In fact, Sir Davie was injured when an experiment exploded. As a result, he was unable to write for some time. As a result, Faraday was able to write Davie's note for a few days. In fact, Sir Davey was impressed by the note Faraday sent earlier, and that is why he had the opportunity.

Soon Sir Davy was healed and Faraday had to take a break from writing notes. Meanwhile, Faraday, who was unaware of his new boss, was looking for work. In that regard, he sent a note to Sir Davey for work.

Faraday, who was influenced by Sir Humphrey Davy's studies and his scientific lectures, wrote him a letter of employment. At the time, Davey was the head of the laboratory at the Royal Institution and assistant lecturer in chemistry.

What happened to Faraday, however, was that shortly after he sent the note, Sir Davy's lab assistant was dismissed on the charge of misconduct. It was a matter of three. Faraday called on Sir Davie to work as an assistant in the laboratory.

Faraday immediately accepted that job. Being an assistant to one of the world-renowned scientists, working at the Royal Institute of Britain was an opportunity for Faraday to embark on an unimaginable and new way of life. When he got that opportunity, he started working at the Royal Institute on March 6, 8, just 2 years old.

Now a new turning point has come in Faraday's life. New and distinguished work, good pay. At the same time, the Royal Institute provided him with a living room.

Faraday spent six years of his life at the Royal Institute. After working as an assistant in the lab, he eventually became a chemistry professor.
His job as a lab assistant was to deliver the equipment for the lectures and experiments during that time. He also had to play with a chemical called nitrogen trichloride, which Davie had injured before the chemicals exploded. Faraday himself was once again unconscious due to the explosion of nitrogen chloride, and Davy was also injured again in the same sequence. For that reason, the use of that chemical was eventually discontinued.

During the seven months that Faraday was working at the Royal Institute, Davie took him on a six-month-long trip to Europe as his secretary.

So Faraday's relationship with Davy has not always been smooth. Due to his upbringing and the British caste system, Faraday was regarded as inferior and he was considered ineligible to be treated and treated with equal respect by his distinguished master.
Because of this, Faraday was not only required to work as Davie's science assistant during his travels to Europe, he also had to serve as Davie's personal assistant, dressing him, bearding and helping with other personal work. In addition, Davey's wife was cruel, and she would not allow Faraday to have food with her and travel with her in the bin.

On that visit, Faraday had the opportunity to meet world-renowned scientist Andrea Marie Emperor in Paris and Alessandro Volta in Milan. In fact, for Faraday it proved to be like an opportunity to study in a college of science touring Europe. From this he gained the opportunity to acquire many knowledge of science.

But after returning from London to Europe, the situation was back to normal. The Royal Institute renewed Faraday's contract and simultaneously raised his salary. Davy also began writing in his academic articles to Faraday: I am indebted to Mr. Faraday for his extremely capable support. “Indebted to Mr. Michael Faraday for much able assistance. ”

In 9 years of age, Faraday had the opportunity to give the first sermon of his life. He gave that sermon on the properties of matter in the City Philosophical Society. He then published his first academic article on the analysis of calcium hydroxycate in the Quarterly Journal of Science.

At age 89, he was promoted to the Royal Institute of Superintendents of the House and Laboratory. He married Sarah Sarah Bernad. Until then, he had been provided with a comfortable, luxurious and luxurious living room instead of the Royal Institute's Buiggle room, which was once occupied by Faraday's guru Davey himself.

Faraday married Sarah Bannard in 9, but they had no children. They were both committed Christians and were members of the Sandemanian Sect. Due to his poor health condition, Faraday rarely did research in the field of science.
Together with Davey, Faraday demonstrated his extraordinary talent and made some important inventions. He invented a liquid form of chlorine in the 8th and in the 8th he invented a new substance now known as benzene.

Faraday was without a doubt the most accomplished chemist, and he was also a Master of Electricity. In 9 Faraday invented a homopolar motor. His invention was influenced by the electromagnetism of Danish physicist Hans Christian Orstedt. Faraday called the electromagnetic rotation that the motor operates. This has become the main tenet of the current electric motor. Fareed by this invention, Faraday published his novel without giving it to Davey, the catalyst for his invention. As a result, the relationship between Faraday and Davey worsened. As a result, Faraday did no other achievement in the field of Electricity. The reason for this is that people believe that this is because of the angry Davy who assigned Faraday to another area of ​​research.

At the age of 6, he was elected to the Royal Society. It was an accepted and respected position in the sense that he had become an established scientist by the strength of his own abilities and talents. Shortly thereafter, he became the director of the Royal Institution Laboratory at the age of eight (2). Similarly, at the age of 4 he became a Fullerian Professor of Chemistry at the Royal Institute of Great Britain. He held this position for a lifetime.

He was twice proposed to become the president of the Royal Society in 1 and 2, but he declined.

In 8, he invented the electromagnetic index. It laid the foundation for modern electric generators and transformers. This invention revolutionized the use of electricity. His invention opened the door to limited general electricity access to labs and limited experiments so far.
In the meantime while doing these two wonderful inventions, he started a evening lecture and Christmas lecture at the Royal Institute where he worked. His popular lecture series continues today. Faraday's thinking was that it would make the public's access to scientific concepts more accessible and attract young people to science. After he did this, he himself, in his early life, was also deprived of such an opportunity.

Faraday survived until the 5th. This great scientist passed away on August 7 of that year.

Faraday wrote in a letter to a friend about how to lecture:

 'A flame has to be burned from the beginning and kept burning until the end.'

In fact, her words reflect her vision of life and how she lived.

Faraday was born into a poor family and later became one of the world's greatest scientists. His immense contributions and inventions in the field of science are also important in the sense that he made those inventions at a time when science was considered to be for wealthy and affluent families only. The unit of electrical capacitance is named Farad, which is an indication of F, in honor of his distinguished contribution to the field of science, especially in the field of electronic science.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

We have entered the final and sixth stages of our universe

The birth of the earth only at the last stage of the universe

With our ordinary eyes and wisdom, the universe looks like it has been around for centuries. Why the Universe Only? According to common sense and eye assessments, the earth is still visible. But, the eyes and wisdom of science say, 'Neither the earth is stable nor the universe ever-expanding. According to scientific belief, the universe originated 1.5 billion years ago by the explosion or phenomenal expansion called the Big Bang. Then there are the scientific facts and evidence that are constantly evolving, increasing or expanding.

As we stagnate on the earth, it is difficult for us to believe that we are moving along the Earth at a velocity of 5 meters per second, or 1.5 kilometers per second, or a unit at our speed of 5 kilometers per hour. We do not have the ability to understand it without any scientific use. And, this is only the primary motion of the earth and of all the creatures inhabiting the earth. The earth rotates on its axis and rotates around the sun. The Earth revolves around the sun at a rate of 19.5 km per second, that is, 1,900 kilometers per second. Remember, along with the earth, you are always moving at the same speed wherever you are.

 Not only with Earth, but you also revolve around the galaxy of the Milky Way, the galaxy center, with the speed of the sun. Where the 'Milky Way' is stationary, it revolves around another 'supercluster'. Remember, superclusters are a huge cluster of small galaxies in themselves.

The universe is infinite, and there are many galaxies like the 'Milky Way' in the universe. The universe is not what it used to be yesterday. Waiting is expanding. There are many changes happening in the thousands in seconds. In a second, the universe expands into the millions.

Yes, this expansion of the universe is happening thousands of times faster than the speed of light. In our timescale, the universe originated 1.5 billion years ago. Before the 'Big Bang', the entire universe was covered in a molecular structure. After the 'Big Bang', it is constantly expanding. According to scientists, its expansion has reached 90 billion light. That is to say that light takes 19 billion years to reach from one end of the universe to the other. After the 'Big Bang', if the universe had expanded at the speed of light, then the size of the universe would have to have been only 2.5 billion light-years in the 8.5 billion years.

In the 1930s scientist, Edwin Hubbell proved that the universe was expanding at a much faster rate than light. With this rapid expansion of the universe, the distances between the celestial bodies at great distances are increasing rapidly over time.

You could say the universe was smaller than it was 2 seconds ago. In a second, the size of the universe will be much larger than it is now. Continuous expansion of the universe increases the cosmic timescale and also increases the distance between the far-flung celestial bodies. In addition, the expansion of the universe also changes the amount of its medium, radiation, neutrino and dark energy. Extension to or from the universe also affects the temperature of the universe. We can say that the sky we are seeing does not disappear, there are many dramatic changes.

Scientists have divided all of the changes from the origin of the universe to the present in 2 phases, and it is said that we are currently entering the sixth phase or the last phase.

The ever-expanding Universe is the substance of the highest order, the radiation in the middle, and the Cosmological Constant at the lowest. With the expansion of the universe, the density of matter (liquid-oriented to lattice-oriented) comes with density. Similarly, the wave radius of the entire radiation is stretched and its wavelength becomes longer and its energy work and they become cold. In this order, the cosmic determinant 'Dark Energy' remains constant (according to the present scientific belief). Science is still confused about the nature and nature of dark energy.
This graph can be understood from:

Anything or thing in our universe has a certain amount of energy, be it matter, radiation or dark energy. As the universe expands, all of the above-mentioned forms of energy are subject to immediate changes in import and quantity. Different types of energy stored in all are active and affected.

For example, if we consider the change in the visible universe to be A - the energy density of matter in the universe is affected by 1 / A3 by participating in the process. As you know, density in terms of the matter is the mass of a substance. And, the mass in the substance is easily converted into energy. Recall Einstein's formula: E = MC2

The energy density of the radiation present in the universe is affected by 1 / A4 in the process. In terms of diffraction, the density is equal to the number of particles divided by imports.

The change in the radiation direction is 1A more than the change in the matter because every photon in the radiation is stretched with the expansion of the universe, its energy is also reduced.

As the universe expands, the density of 'dark matter' remains constant. Since the dark engine is intrusive, it has no effect on density, 1 / A0

The universe, which existed 5.5 billion years ago, is huge and this paradigm continues to grow. At the beginning of the Big Bang, the universe, which is extremely hot, has been chilling and its cooling continues. In the future, it will be even colder.

In the beginning, the Universe had a gravitational singularity, which has now come to a disadvantage. The appearance of the universe was small in the past, which is currently expanding to 90 billion light-years. And, in the future, it will only get worse.

The laws of physics can be understood by applying the laws of physics to the form and shape of the universe as seen and measured through the advanced technology and means developed by science: where the journey of the universe began and where it is going.
Not only does science break the universe's starting point, the 'Big Bang', but also the earlier 'cosmic inflation'. Today we can predict the present universe and its future, as well as the final fate and future of all things.

In principle, we know all too well about the entire history of the universe. But it lacks one thing in particular. Of the four basic forces in the universe, we know very little about gravity. Our knowledge of the other 'Force' electromagnetic 'Strong Nuclear' and 'Vic Nuclear Force' is at the primary level.

Even in such situations, what do we know clearly about what is the speed of expansion of the universe? And, as regards the energy composition of this expansion, it is known that light always moves along the ever-expanding universe. Light will also reach us from the universe that has expanded in the future. The study of scientific methods of brightness or endless dimming and long wavelengths is possible. Yes, this study will be done on the patio.

When we study the Universe in terms of its nature and properties, we find that it is moving through the six different ages.

1. Inflationary era - In this age, the background of the 'Big Bang' was formed.
2. Primordial soap age - the beginning of the Big Bang from the beginning of the nuclear and particle (particle) interactions.
2. Age in the plasma - from the end of the mutual action of the nuclei and the partitions to the non-existent until the universe is sufficiently cold.
4. The Dark Ages - from the origins of heavy matter to the origin of stars and galaxies. In this age the space between the stars and galaxies became. To become ion (IoN) in the sky.
5. Stellar age - from the combination of ions to the origin of gravity. During this period, a large-scale celestial structure was formed and the influence of 'dark energy' on the density of matter was maintained.
6. Dark Energy Era - the last phase of our universe. Entering this phase the universe expanded rapidly. Thus the distance between the celestial bodies increased.

According to science, we have already entered the sixth and final phase of the universe billions of years ago. Most important events that reflect the history of our universe have already been edited before we were human beings. Let's look at what happened in the six stages of the universe

1. Inflationary age: This is the time before the hot 'Big Bang'. There was nothing at this time. They say that the earth was neither earth nor water, neither sun nor sky. There was neither light nor darkness. There was no substance, antimatter or radiation in the universe at this time. What was against it was in the form of energy.
This energy helped the universe expand faster over time. This energy, by the way, initially stretched the universe and made it unique. Because the universe was one and the same, it was getting bigger because of the small strain. Even now its expanding view extends beyond the borders of the universe.
At this stage, activity at the 'quantum' level reduced the seed for all structures. As a result, the cosmos is full of cosmic waves. The end of this era is about 2.5 billion years ago. Towards the end of this age, all energy was converted into particles, repulsions, and radiation. With this conversion, the end of this era began with the 'Hot Big Wang'.

2. Primordial Soap Era: With the origin of matter, antibodies, and radiation in the then universe, the supremacy of the Big Bang began to crumble. When two particles are interconnected, the particles or processes that are formed in this process are formed under the laws of physics in the era of repulsion. In the primary case, the energy of the particle to be restrained for combining, but in combination, it followed Astan's world-famous formula E = MC2. As the universe got colder, energy levels dropped and it became increasingly stiff (assuming shape) with weighted particles and repulsions. But with the combination of particles and repulsions, the process of erosion and other reactions of the particles continued the intact process of particle formation and destruction. This made no difference to the situation.

But within 3-5 seconds of the 'Big Bang', all replicas disappeared from view. Only the particles remained. Within 3 to 5 minutes of the Big Bang, the nucleus of deuterium called isotope of hydrogen and some of the light elements began the 'nucleosynthesis' process.

3. Plasma era: Once the nuclei of light are formed, these are the positively charged objects in the universe, and are scattered all over the universe. Remember that electrons with the same amount of negatively charged balance become instantaneous. Nuclei and electrons create molecules. Both of these concentrated zeal and negative zeal immediately find their way to each other and form the molecule, and make way for the stars to form. Both of these are the first major causes for any particle formation. Photon particles carry a lot of energy to react between the electrons and the nuclei. Photons react with one of the billions of electrons and nuclei. Whenever an electron and a nuclei hit each other, Joltin came in, highly energized photons came and separated him. This process continued dramatically until the universe became cold. How cold This process continued until a few thousand degrees Celsius was realized from billions of degrees Celsius. As a result, the origin of the root molecules (of course, had a significant role in this kind of 'molecular state' of being all possible).

At the beginning of the 'plasma' era, the amount of cosmic energy was less than radiation. And at the end of this age, ordinary energy and dark matter reduced cosmic energy. The time period of this third phase, known as the 'plasma' era, is estimated to be 1 lakh 3 thousand years after the 'Big Bang'.

4. Dark Age Age: As the universe is filled with inertial molecules, finally the fourth 'Fundamental Force' emerges of gravity. But these molecules scattered all over the universe continue to make visible light invisible throughout the galaxy. Today, we know why this has happened or will happen. This is because these neutral molecules are formed from 'cosmic dust'. That is why these scenes can interrupt the light. In order to end this dark age (Dark Age era), the reorganization of IoN (intergalactic space) in the interstellar sky was necessary. This required the formation process of numerous stars and an infinite number of 'ultraviolet' photons and gravity for a very long time. In addition, the process of becoming a 'cosmic wave' was required. It took 100 million to 100 million years after the 'Big Bang' to become the first major body of ions. However, the ion rearrangement took longer to complete, almost 100 million years after the 'Big Bang'. Where is this process still stopping? The process of star formation has increased. The process of becoming a galaxy cluster of extremely dense galaxies is just beginning.

5. Stellar Age: With the end of the 'Dark Age', the universe became brighter and more transparent with the light of stars. The galaxy in the universe, the star cluster galaxy, the galaxy became accessible, accessible. The universe was filled with 'dark matter' and simple matter, and the rise of gravity continued to become the largest astronomical structure. The process of star formation increased. Nearly 2 billion years after the Big Bang, the process of becoming a star reached its peak. During this time, new galaxies formed, galaxies that were formed grew ever larger and became interconnected. Swarms of galaxies drew more and more matter to themselves. But the number of free gases in the galaxy decreased. Due to the use of these gases during the formation of numerous stars, the volume of gas decreased. Slowly but regularly, the process of star formation also decreased. As time progressed, the star's mortality rate increased more than the formation of a new star. This time, another interesting phenomenon was discovered. With the expansion of the universe, as the density of matter decreases, new energy, 'Dark Energy', emerges, making all other energy ineffective or inferior. After 1.2 billion years of the 'Big Bang', the far-flung galaxies regained momentum by pausing the process of forming a circle. After that, 9.2 billion years after the Big Bang, 'Dark Energy' became the most energy in the universe. It was at this time that the universe entered its sixth and final phase.

6. Dark Energy Era: Scientists estimate that the universe has a volume of 5 percent 'Dark Energy' and 3 percent 'Dark Matter'. Everything that we see in the visible universe, whether or not the celestial bodies, satellites, stars, galaxies, or all other celestial bodies, are visible, and they are the visible universe. The presence of three is only about 8 percent of the total universe. By the end of the 'Stellar' era, the 'Dark Energy' had dominated the universe. And as the 'Dark Energy' grows in the universe, something strange happens. In the cosmos, the formation of large structures is halted. Any two bodies bound by gravitational force remain unchanged, but after the abundance of 'Dark Energy', the bodies that are not bound to each other by gravity will never be bound. They are constantly moving away from each other. Eventually, those bodies continue to move into nothingness, leaving their only existence in the universe. Large structures such as galaxies and their clusters or galaxies cluster together to form an even larger elliptical galaxy. The current stars are slowly eroding. The process of becoming a new star is gradually halted. Changes in gravity push most of the stars into the intergalactic abyss of the galaxy. Earth-like planets are absorbed in their orbit and stellar radiation and are gradually eliminated by gravitational radiation. Even the 'black holes', which are believed to be extremely old, are also eventually eradicated by Hawkins radiation. This sixth and final phase was actually started 2 billion years ago. 3 billion years ago, the expansion of the Universe became necessary for the 'Dark Energy'. According to scientists, before our earth was created, it had dominated all other substances and energies of the universe. It may have passed through 3 stages since the origin of the universe, but the existence of the earth in which we live has come only after the final and decisive phase of the universe. The universe arrived at the last doses of its age billions of years before we were born.

Lovingly and lovingly observe the earth, the sky, and the entire universe around you. It will never be as picturesque and picturesque as it is today. Or, let's say, the convenience and convenience of viewing the universe as easily today will never happen again.

With Help of

Monday, August 19, 2019

A single letter which makes Einstein guilty feel all his life!

A single letter which makes Einstein guilty feel all his life!

Einstein also signed that letter to the US President to make a nuclear bomb for a stop from Nazis to global collapse.

According to the English calendar, the month of August may be of interest to the students of History, which are following. However, my relationship with history is only 'opportunism'. There is no greater importance than seeing and forgetting about the opportunity and context when it comes to it.
Apparently, the three dates in August are round in my memory.  They were on August 1, 1979, August 1, 1979, and August 1989.By reading the two dates (August 1, 1979, and August 1989.) without the first date, some of my friends who have read some of my articles in the past may have grasped the content of today's article.

August 1, 1949, is the saddest day in the history of humanity, which cannot be satisfied even by using all slanderous words in all the languages prevalent worldwide. And, the scandal that causes this stigma can not be emancipated from this page of bloody history, using all the words of forgiveness and self-criticism around the world.
Two years ago, on August 7, a US bomber dropped a nuclear bomb on the city of Hiroshima, Japan. Hundreds of millions of people were annihilated in a matter of minutes after the bomb, named 'Little Wave'. Three days after that, on August 7th, the US dropped another nuclear bomb called 'Fat Wave' in Nagasaki, Japan, that created a catastrophe of devastation, which is probably human. After the rise of civilization, it became the most shameful and scandalous act.

The Hitler side had already been defeated in World War II, beginning in 1979, but the United States had to test the horrors of its bombing, and why would it have missed it. The unfortunate act of the United States did not forget the regret that a person had until then, nor could he escape the pain of regret. Reader friends' August 1, 1979, the same regrets. A world-renowned scientist has suffered the brunt of pain, trauma, and trauma, as he survived one of his acts to this day. Albert Einstein, the greatest scientist in human history, is no other than the great scientist.Shortly before the outbreak of World War II, the world's leading scientists and intellectuals wrote a letter to the then US President Roosevelt.

Einstein signed the letter at the request of Leo Szilard, a Hungarian nuclear scientist living in the United States. The letter addressed to US President Franklin Roosevelt said, "Nazi Germany is making, or probably has been the most deadly destructive bomb." Was advised to do.

Reports from the US intelligence agency were pointing similarly. US President Roosevelt approved the 'Manhattan Project' after receiving information of such intent from everywhere. The project made the world's first nuclear bomb. Over the course of four years, the 'Manhattan Project' managed to make atomic bombs by spending nearly $ 3 billion. The head of the project, with many scientists involved, was J. Robert Oppenheimer. The first test of the bomb was carried out in the desert of Mexico on July 1, 1979, at 8am. Seeing the flames of destruction caused by the bombing, physicist Isidor Rabi, who was involved in the construction of the bomb, said: "I have become worried for humanity, this poses a huge risk to all humanity and we have damaged the natural balance."

In the Bhagwat Gita from Oppenheimer's mouth, Krishna goes on to say to Arjuna, 'I am the rising time, I am the destroyer born to destroy the world.
Director of Trial Ken Bainbridge said with Oppenheimer - We are all now children of the devil (Now We Are All Sons Of Bitehes.)

Six days after the trial, the US dropped a bomb on a living city, Hiroshima, and turned it into ash, and three days later, it burned the entire city, using its nuclear power, in Nagasaki.
When Albert Einstein learned of the atomic bomb dropped on two Japanese cities, he did not immediately believe it. But when it was confirmed, he was filled with grief and grief. She suffered one of the biggest traumas of life, a sudden blow from her mouth - awful, horrible. He was so hurt by the incident that he did not comment on the incident for a year. He then said that if I knew that the Germans could not make an atom bomb, I would not even shake a finger at the US government in this case. Einstein said this in his lecture entitled 'The War Is One, But Peace Not.' We set out to develop this kind of new weapon; in this way our intention was clear; we did not want the enemies of humanity to succeed in making it before us.


We handed that new weapon into the hands of the US and British people, treating them as representatives of the entire human race and the guardians of peace and liberty. But we have never seen that guarantee of peace and independence. War has been conquered ... but peace has not been achieved. The world was promised to relieve fear, but fear has increased manifold since the war ended.


The mindset of the Nazis is to create unimaginable destruction and destruction and to keep the whole world in bondage. We handed that new weapon into the hands of the US and British people, treating them as representatives of the entire human race and the guardians of peace and liberty. But we have never seen that guarantee of peace and independence. War has been conquered ... but peace has not been achieved. The world was promised to relieve fear, but fear has increased manifold since the war ended. The world was promised a lack of consumables in daily life, but in reality, most areas of the world suffer from starvation and on the other hand, some people are accumulating more than they need. In the last period of his life, Einstein, along with other world-renowned scientists and intellectuals, made the 'Russell-Einstein Manifesto' public in April 1979. The manifesto urged mankind to be sensitive to nuclear disarmament. But as long as Einstein lived, a letter written by Roosevelt to make an atom bomb continued to burn. Likewise, he passed away on April 8, 1949, at the age of six. Einstein's letter to the US president was written by Leo Szilard. Einstein signed the letter. However, Einstein took responsibility for the letter and considered it the biggest mistake of his life. Einstein regretted in his letter to his old friend, Linus Pulig, on November 9, 1939, writing that Einstein made the biggest mistake in my life when I signed a letter to President Roosevelt about making a nuclear bomb.

letter from Einstein to President Roosevelt
Albert einstein
Old Grove Road
Nassau Point
Peconic, Long Island
August 3, 1969

In service,

Franklin D. Roosevelt
President, United States
White house
Washington, DC


I have received some recent manuscript manuscripts by A. Fermi and L. Szilard. It has given me hope, that in the near future, uranium can be used as a new energy source.

In the meantime, it has become necessary to keep an eye on the situation and to call for action from the administration if necessary. Therefore, I think it is my duty to bring to your attention some of the facts and the following.

In the past four months, the work done by Juliet of France and Fermi and Szilard of the United States has made it possible for nuclear reactions to occur in the enormous mass of uranium. In the process, too much energy and radium can be generated. I think this will be possible in the near future.

This new achievement paves the way for nuclear bombs. And, it is also likely that unexpectedly highly capable new types of bombs can be made. If a bomb is to be bombed on an island by a boat, a single bomb of this kind could destroy the surrounding settlements and cause major destruction.
This new achievement paves the way for nuclear bombs. And, it is also likely that unexpectedly highly capable new types of bombs can be made. If a bomb is to be bombed on an island by a boat, a single bomb of this kind could destroy the surrounding settlements and cause major destruction. Of course, this type of bomb would be too heavy for air traffic.

Uranium with the United States is inferior and to a lesser extent. Good quality uranium is available in Canada and eastern Czechoslovakia. Of course, the best source of uranium is the Belgian Congo.

Depending on the circumstances, you can believe that the relationship between the physicist working in the US and the US administration will be cordial and permanent. There may be a way to develop and maintain this situation, then you should hand it over to someone you trust who is capable of doing this. Here are some things he can do -

(2) To inform the department about the progress being made in coordination with the government departments. Recommend for government action. Particularly to draw the United States' attention to the supply and security of uranium.

(2) To intensify research that is being conducted on a limited budget in a university lab. Larger 'Funding' needs to be raised by using your personal efforts and relationships to raise funds.

I believe Germany has prohibited the sale of uranium from the mine in Czechoslovakia. The prohibition of Germany should also be understood, as the son of Germany's Deputy Secretary of State, Van Weijsker, is a renowned and highly talented nuclear physicist (Nuclear Physicist). He is working with the Kaiser-Wilhelm Institute Berlin. The institute is doing some research on uranium like the US.

Your best wishes

Albert einstein

In a letter dated August 8, 1979, written by Einstein, on August 29, 1979, President Roosevelt responded by agreeing. The letter that Roosevelt wrote in reply was:

Monday, August 12, 2019

Do you know, Why shrimp rubs their feet ?

Have you ever see the shrimp. But have you noticed a strange shrimp behavior? If not, remember that during the sitting, the shrimp are always rubbing their feet together. After all, what is the secret of shrimp rubbing in such a strange way? He does not rub his feet to kill or massage his cheeks. In fact, he is rubbing his feet to clean his feet or to shake off the dirty garbage in his feet. The garbage is trapped in the garbage, the particles of germs in the tongue, while the garbage sinks in the garbage. With bare eyes, the shrimp's feet look normal. But if you look at a magnifying glass that looks larger than a microscope, the entire body of the shrimp is covered with hair. Again the tongue of the shrimp is covered with gum-like substance. The germs of the garbage are stuck in both the mouth and the tongue. It has two pair of padded nude paddles on three pairs of legs, which easily pull out the garbage. Again, in the pad of the shrimp's foot, it is also releasing gum-sticking fluid. With the help of this, the shrimp can easily move on the roof, even on the surface of the shrimp.

The garbage in the garbage can also be found in our food. While sitting, germs, germs, and germs of disease fall on their own, and shrimps naturally fall off their feet. As a result, our food is dirty. If our body cannot cope with the germs of the disease after eating such a waste, we are free.

Shrimp are the most dangerous enemy of humankind. It is more dangerous than tiger-bear. Because tiger bears do not cause such great pain to humans. However, the tiny shrimp, which can carry many germs of plague, cholera, and tuberculosis, will surprise people. And it kills millions of people every year. No matter how hard it is to sit down and stick it out again, it hurts people!

Friday, August 9, 2019

Was it wrong to tell that people on moon was real?

For the first time in 1979, millions watched the rare broadcast of human foot-stepping on the moon.

But still some people are not ready to believe that someone has reached the moon. They point out that humans have never set foot on the moon. According to a report by the American Space Agency, at least one in 100 people in the United States believes that people have reached the moon.
The numbers are small, but that's enough to spread the rumor.

Movement of deceit on the moon

The moon tried to spread the theory of deception by claiming that the human being on the moon was false. Proponents of the theory argue that in the 1940s, the US space program failed on the moon missions due to lack of technology.
They believe that NASA is pretending to land on the moon to join the space race against the Soviet Union and to show itself.
Neil Armstrong said after landing on the moon, 'This is a small step for people. But a big leap forward for the human race. ”The stories that questioned its authenticity began with Apollo 1 returning to Earth.
But in 1979, those stories and rumors succeeded in creating a sensation. In 1959 a book was published, We Never Went to the Moon: America's Thirty Billion Dollar Swindle.

Journalist Bill Casing wrote the book. He had worked at NASA's public relations department.
The book mentions many things and arguments that were supported by people who believed that the moon had reached man.

Flag the moon without the wind

The book also included a picture of a US flag that was said to have been buried on the surface of the moon. The picture shows the American flag being buried on the lunar surface. In the book, the flag is described as hoisting the flag on the moon with no wind and no stars appearing in the background in the picture.According to astronomer Michael Rich, who is researching at the University of California, there are many scientific arguments that can be made to falsify this claim.

Neil Armstrong and his team-mate Buzz Aldrin hit the surface with a lot of force, which is why they were also seen in the mood. In addition, another reason why the flag appears to be hoisted is that the moon's gravity is 6 times lower than that of the earth.

The sky without a star

People who lie about landing on the moon will also argue with the picture that there is only a black sky without stars. They claim that the image of the star as a landing on the moon is false, since there is no star at night.
However, the picture that is in the form of Sawto has the same amount of darkness and light.
According to Brian Cabralin, professor of astro physics at the Rochester Institute of Technology, this is because the surface of the moon shows sunlight, which is why it looks so bright.
The same glow reduces the star's light in the sky. Since the star's light is too weak, the stars of the sky have not been seen and only the black.

Fake markings

They are also part of the rumor that the footprints shown on the moon are also there. They argue that it is not possible to have such a footprint because of the lack of moisture in the Moon. It is easily compressed when lying on the surface. '
He said that the signs of such footsteps, once formed on the surface of the moon, will remain in place for millions of years as the moon has no atmosphere.

How did the astronaut survive?

According to the most well-known rumors, the astronauts have to die because of the light box that surrounds the earth. The tree is called Van Allen, which combines solar wind and the earth's magnetic surface.
In the early stages of the space race, this light became a matter of great concern to scientists. The scientists thought it to be the most dangerous for the astronaut.
But according to NASA, Apollo 8 spent less than two hours in Venn Lane. Likewise, only 5 minutes was spent in these dangerous places. That is, Apollo 4 did not have to spend time in the box for long enough to cause danger to the astronaut.

Residents who refute the rumor

NASA recently released some pictures related to the Apollo landing. Which is evidence that the moon has landed.
Apart from the picture, there is also a landing site of Apollo 2, which can be seen on the soil and the remains of the moon module.
The LRO also showed that the flags buried by two people who had landed on the moon were still standing. During the investigation, the shadow of the flag was also detected on the surface. However, such rumors have spread and are widely known around the world.
There is a lot of scientific evidence confirming that Neil Armstrong stepped on the moon in 1979.
The only question to those who believe that the moon has reached human beings is that if the steps on the moon were false, why did the Soviet Union use a secret program to send its people to the moon?
Former NASA historian Robert Lions argues, 'If the footing on the moon was a lie, why didn't the Soviet Union oppose it? While he had both the courage and the courage to confirm a lie. The Soviet Union didn't even say a word about it. '

Monday, August 5, 2019

What is Science ?

The background

Today is the era of science and technology. Humans have been using science and technology since ancient timesScience and technology are considered the backbone of the country's development and prosperity. Without its development, the progress of any nation cannot be accelerated. Science helps in the development of technology while standard technology makes science education standard. It is said that if science is a tree, technology is the fruit of its development, so only if science is developed in the country, then necessary techniques can be developed to suit soil within the country. The development of science and technology has changed the lives of people around the world. The United States has become the most powerful nation in the world because of the development of science and technology.


Continuous study knowledge based on the use and observation of a subject or object is called science. Science is a systematic knowledge that establishes and organizes knowledge of testable interpretations and predictions about the universe. Science is part of almost every aspect of our lives. Science is the common heritage of the human race. Science is a remarkable achievement of human heritage. The pursuit of truth is the main goal of science. Science makes something extraordinary possible. In fact, the term science is often used for natural sciences. It includes physics, chemistry and biology. There is a deep connection between nature and science.
In science, scientists first observe. And they ask why this happened. Then begin to hypothesize. According to that hypothesis, many times after experimenting or testing, it eventually becomes a scientific theory. Our Eastern philosophy encompassed much of the imagination, but could not develop its testing equipment. Even though we have the Vedas, science could not be properly developed. Where science is, nature is and nature is, The law of that nature is defined as science. The law of nature or creation is a science of science or study of man. Science cannot create rules of its own, but it does highlight the laws of nature, which are given by science in its own form and are known by the laws of science. Scientists point out that poverty can only be helped if the theoretical and experimental knowledge of science can be applied in practice.


Science is called an insatiable spirit. If people were satisfied, inventions would not happen. Technology is an invention created by unsatisfied minds. Technology is a group of studies or sciences related to practical and industrial arts and applied sciences. Technology is one of the biggest contributors to developing modern civilization and bringing it to its present state. The countries that are technically powerful are the strategic and economically the strongest and even more capable.
Today is the age of technology. The development of time-consuming technology and the education of the countries that consume it, as well as the economic and social sectors, have also seen progress. The use of technology is very different between developed countries and developing nations. The use of information and technology to improve the managerial system, to produce competent and competent manpower, to bridge the gap between access to and lack of information and communication technology, and to encourage continuous and lifelong learning. The use of technology seems to play an important role in narrowing the world and developing it as a global village.

Illustrations of science and technology in Nepal

The development of science and technology is only possible to change the face of any country. For science and technology Nepal and Nepalese have become like "the seed of the scum who knows not the Shrikhand." Without the development of science and technology, it is impossible to imagine the economic prosperity of a country.
The development of science and technology has changed the lives of people around the world. Despite the slogans of "science and technology for nation building", "the foundation of sustainable development of science technology and invention", "the foundation of prosperity of science and technology innovation", "the prosperity of science and technology in the country", even though the Ministry of Science and Technology went ahead with this slogan. The development of the area was restricted to slogans.
But so far in Nepal, the current Ministry of Science and Technology related to science and technology and the Nepal Science and Technology Institute have not been able to define the true sciences. It is a matter of great irony that the scientist in Nepal cannot be defined according to the universally accepted definition of a scientist.


In many developed countries, the government will move forward with advice and suggestions from researchers, experts, scientists, professionals in the fields of science and technology. Taking into account the importance of 'research and development' concept, which is considered as the main engine of economic prosperity and social transformation of developed countries of the world, there is an urgent need to make the country more oriented towards economic prosperity by making maximum development of science and technology in Nepal. It is important to develop technologies that suit our soil to make our country Nepal independent.In the end, it is only a matter of imagination at present to think that a two-thirds majority of the powerful Communist government would combine the Ministry of Science and Technology with the Ministry of Education to create a climate of scientific inquiry and create an internationally scientific environment. It is important that the Government of Nepal receive serious attention in this matter. For the development of science and technology in Nepal, the development of science and technology seems to be possible only if the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology is set up independently and formed the Ministry of Science and Technology. The country must move forward in the path of development and economic prosperity with maximum utilization of science and technology.

Sunday, August 4, 2019

What is a black hole?

Scientists have finally released a photo of a black hole (black hole). Scientists have released the first image of a black hole in the M-7 galaxy (galaxy), some 10 million light years away from Earth.
The image of the black hole we have always imagined. According to Nepali time on Wednesday, the photo, which was made public at 7pm, looks exactly the same as we had imagined.

This black hole is 7.2 billion times larger than the sun. It is the heaviest and largest black hole in the universe. Although the image looks a bit irregular, the bright ring shape is obvious. Even the light does not escape from the black hole. The image made by scientists is a shadow of black. It is not possible to take a realistic picture of a black hole because it does not escape the light.

Astronomers have managed to capture this image with the help of the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT). The Event Horizon Telescope is a network of 6 different telescopes in the world. According to a report published in the Astro Physics Journal Letter, two hundred scientists from 19 institutions in 9 different countries of the world were involved in the work. The purpose of which was to capture a photo of the black hole event Horizon.

Event Horizon is also called Point of No Return, where no object can come out upon arrival. This is a hypothetical surface around a black hole that has been scientifically proven by scientists. Everyone is interested in how it was possible to take a picture of this object far beyond the earth.

Here's how:

The Event Horizon Telescope is a radio telescope. Which is a collective effort of various radio telescopes around the world from which a massive imaginary radio telescope, such as the Earth, was created. It is a joint effort of six radio observatory teams of the world.All radio telescopes were set to the same target. This fictitious telescope was located 4,000 miles away from Earth. This task was very difficult. Scientists have used the 'Atomic Clock' for this. Special consideration was also given to the wavelength.

According to various reports, data from telescopes was estimated to have collected more than 100,000,000 GB. Was processed in Germany. The data obtained were analyzed with the help of a supercomputer.The data was collected on hardium-filled hard disks. Hard disks were sent from the airplane when data was not transmitted via the Internet. It used radio imaging to generate image data from different types of waves.Telescopes are located in different places. It is located in areas where there is no human settlement and the effects of a desolate sky and atmospheric gases are slight. An airborne and volcanic area of ​​Mexico, mountains of the state of Arizona and Sierra Nevada in Spanish and desert in Antarctica and Antarctica in Chile's Ataca.

Symposium of Astro Physics Journal Letter:

Astro Physics Journal has published two papers on the work of the Event Horizon Telescope. The research report contains all the details of the project and the achievements so far.
The first paper contains a picture of a black hole and a summary of achievements. Which contains the complete details of the project and the achievements so far. The second paper describes the series (array) of the Event Horizon Telescope. Which contains observations and telescopes related to the black hole. The paper mentions the observations made using the system, technology and resources built on the Event Horizon Telescope, as well as the details of the progress of the work.

The third paper focuses on the full details of the observations, summarizing the statistics, details of the required protocols and how the conclusions were drawn. The fourth paper describes the methodology for drawing a picture and how it was constructed. The old method of solving the process of mathematical process for image creation and the new mathematical calculation method was adopted by the instrumentalists used in EHT. It took months to test and calculate the figures obtained.The fifth paper describes the general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations used for fine-grained image simulation and the use of Adams ray tracing method for image acquisition and jet launching of black holes.
The sixth paper covers the system used, the substitution of the obtained statistics, the weight of the black hole, and the black hole and its time interval.

'Albert Einstein was right'

According to physicist Udayaraj Khanal, the image obtained showed that scientific confirmation of Albert Einstein was correct. Einstein noted that time and space will end when the power and the body are united in one place.

Which was later interpreted as Singularity by other scientists. In the middle part of the black hole is Singularity, where all power and body are integrated. He said it was covered by Event Horizon.

According to him, Einstein said that the interpretation of space, time and gravity was correct.
Said objects were moving toward the center of the black hole. Like Newton's theory of gravity points to 'point mass', Einstein's theory of relativity points to relativity's point mass. Einstein noted that gravity does not affect the speed of light.
Einstein said that all motions, objects and phenomena in the universe are relative and all are related to the speed of light. According to him, space and space time are not as flat as previously believed, it is rotating. This has again confirmed the geometric etymology of 'space and time' according to Einstein's theory. Earlier it was confirmed that there were gravitational waves.

What is a black hole?

The black hole is an area where the light also disappears. The light is the 'trap'. The black hole draws no object to itself and does not escape. It has the ability to pull an entire solar system into itself. It has a lot of gravitational force. Nothing can reach the event Horizon. The object that reaches there is compressed at the center of it. Udayraj Khanal Astronomer.
Astrophysicist and eighth-century scientist Staph Hawkins did a lot of research on the black hole. He dedicated his life to it. He also mentioned radiation emanating from the black hole. Called Hawking's Radiation.

As the big stars approach the end of their life cycle, they are destroyed and thus become black holes. Where there can be millions of stars, even galaxies. Its density is enormous. Many larger objects are compressed into a smaller object and the gravitational force of these objects is greater.

According to the physicist, Khanal, the substance in the published image was falling into the black hole and there was no light. According to him, the light seen in the picture is a flickering light in the black hole.

'Sun cannot become black hole':

According to the physicist Khanal, the sun could not become a black hole under any circumstances. According to him, the stars weighing 1/3 times the Sun can go into the final phase and become black holes. These stars rotate and become black holes with a high gravitational force. Similarly, objects moving in the sky may become larger and black holes.

According to him, our solar system cannot go to the black hole. The black hole larger than the solar system is millions of light years away from us, and the probability that a black hole is very close to our solar system is very low, he said. According to him it is a fantasy.

Thursday, August 1, 2019

Pluto reintroduced as a planet

Pluto reintroduced as a planet

Pluto, which has long been regarded as a planet, has been declared as a planet in 7 years.
The International Astronomical Union (IU), the body responsible for the classification of objects in the Universe, has just announced Pluto as a major planet.

Long-established and regarded as the ninth planet in our solar system, Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Planet-X have received the same level of re-recognition. Many know that everyone's favorite planet was given the status of asteroids by removing Pluto from the ninth planet of the solar system in the 5th. Due to this decision, Ayu was becoming notorious and omnipresent.

The announcement of Pluto as a full-fledged planet of the Solar System and its asteroid in year 1 had created a huge outcry among the people. From that time the campaign to re-affirm Pluto was re-introduced to the planet, but it did not find success.
However, Ayu has corrected his old decision, mistaking it. Accordingly, Aiu has issued a press release recognizing Pluto, the planet once again filled with ice.
Remember, there were eight planets in the solar system when Pluto was declared an asteroid. But with Pluto again recognized as a planet, the number of planets in the solar system has reached nine. So another planet named Planet X is believed to be in our solar system.

Bacteria are not only carriers of disease, they are also good friends of humans!

Not surprisingly, bacteria are not only carriers of disease, but they are also good friends of humans!

As soon as the bacteria are exposed, we start to think about the terrible diseases. Because of the many dangerous diseases and problems, such as typhus, cholera, leprosy, plague, TB, diphtheria, pneumonia, etc. So it is only natural to scare the bacteria by name. Bacteria are found everywhere
Bacteria can be found in every corner of the earth, in the soil, sea, and even in the frigid snow of Antarctica. Most of them live on plants, in animal bodies. Only a person's body contains more than 3 times the amount of bacteria in his body. Most of them live in the digestive system.

Some bacteria are found in soil or in dead vegetation. These bacteria play an important role in the nutrient regeneration the soil needs.

Some cause food spoilage and damage the farm. But again, foods made from yogurt or alcoholic liquids are a non-essential element of bacteria.
Only a relatively small number of bacteria cause various diseases.

The reproductive process of bacteria
Bacteria reproduce through the 'binary fission' process. In this process, the bacteria that have only one cell are split into two exactly the same child cells. The 'binary fission' begins when the DNA of the bacteria starts to split into two.

The bacterial cell is then elongated and split into two. While both will have the exact type of DNA in the baby's cell, they are the 'clones' of the parent cell.

With the proper temperature and nutrients, bacteria like Escherichia coli can split within 5 minutes. This means that within 1 hour, the bacteria can grow from one to 5, 19, 5.
An hour later, the number of such bacteria reaches 1,4,5,3. So when infectious bacteria invade our bodies, we get sick soon.

The process of living
Some bacteria can form 'indospores'. 'Indospores' are an inactive form of bacteria that have a strong resistance to adverse physical and chemical conditions such as heterogeneous heat, ultra-violet radiation, and germicidal chemicals.

Because of this, it is very difficult to destroy bacteria. Bacteria that produce 'indospore' are endangered. An example of this is the Bacillus anthrax, which is anthrax.
Not all bacteria are bad

    But not all bacteria are bad for humans. So far, there have been around 300 to 2,000 species of bacteria detected in the world. Most of them are infectious, meaning only about 3 bacteria infect us. Such bacteria are called pathogenic bacteria. Other bacteria are harmless to humans. On the contrary, most bacteria are somehow extremely useful to people and nature.

  Bacteria occur in the air, water, and ground everywhere. Even so, it is found in the deepest depths of the oceans. But it cannot be seen with our bare eyes. It's very subtle. Bacteria in size range from 1 to 5 micrometers (equal to twenty-five thousand parts of an inch).

   This picture is of a bacterium known as Disease. The bacterium is named Neisseria meningitides. It causes meningitis and other diseases caused by bacteria. Bacteria act to decay and kill dead organisms and plants.

   Imagine for a moment, what would the world be like if there were no bacteria? The world would be covered with dead creatures and plants!

   Bacteria are eaten by animals and plants. In this way, the bacteria give their complex substances in common. And, the same thing can be found in soil, water, or air, as a living organism or plant can receive it.

We have dinner. Other creatures also eat food. Bacteria also digest the food they eat. There is a lot of bacteria in people's gut. Bacteria in the gut begin to break down and break down food that is broken into the gastric system. At the same time, bacteria produce certain types of vitamins, nutrients, which our bodies absorb.

One type of bacteria in the soil stops nitrogen and makes it nutritious for food. We get food from certain plants. Apart from this, the use of bacteria in yogurt, pickles, cheeses, vinegar making, certain colors, plastic, cosmetics, tobacco, some medicines and some types of yarn, soap is also used.

To sum it all up, people know little about the usefulness of bacteria. In the future, people will certainly find ways to utilize the bacteria in many ways, which is a very useful and humane way.

Wednesday, July 31, 2019

How far is the universe, how far its boundary

Most astronomers claim that the universe formed during an event called the Big Bang. A massive explosion that took place about 1.5 billion years ago. Space, time, matter and energy were all created in the universe during the Big Bangkram.

This massive explosion has thrown matter in all directions. It has also inspired itself to expand the space. As the universe cools down after the explosion, galaxies, stars, and planets are formed by the material in it. There are objects of all kinds and shapes in this universe. Which can be found in everything from the smallest atom to the largest galaxy.

Expansion of the universe
In 1959, Westo Slyfer discovered the concept of cosmic expansion. The evolution of light in distant galaxies was interpreted as Earth's galaxies. In 1959, the Einstein field equation was used by Alexander Friedman to provide theoretical evidence. In which the universe is expanding. In 1959, Georges Lemaitre independently reached the same conclusion as Friedman on a theoretical basis. First observational evidence is presented for a linear relationship between galaxies and their recurrence velocities.

In 1959, American astronomer Edwin Hubble discovered that there was a direct correlation between the speed of galaxies distant from Earth and their distances. It is now known as the Hubble Law. The Hubble Space Telescope was named after him and the single number that describes the rate of cosmic expansion. The apparent and slow velocity of outer galaxies is called the Hubble Constant relative to their distance.

The galaxies are going away
Astronomer Edwin Hubble has provided convincing evidence. That the universe was expanding. Observing the distant galaxies, he saw that it was the outer part. Until recently, cosmology (the science of cosmology) believed that the rate of expansion of the universe was slowing down due to the influence of gravity. According to current research, the universe could expand forever. However, research on this topic is ongoing. A new study of supernovae in distant galaxies and a force called dark energy could modify the potential fate of the universe.

What is the reason for the expansion of the universe?
Since the discovery of the universe's expansion by the measurement of the velocity of the galaxy by American astronomer Edwin Hubble in the 1930s, astronomers have been searching for how this expansion has changed over time. At that time most scientists had considered two possibilities.

1) The rate of expansion is slow and it is either interrupted. The Universe then starts contracting.

2) It will continue to expand forever.

In 1979, two separate teams of astronomers studied a distant supernova (the one led by US Saul Perlmutter and the other by Nick Sanchez and Brian Schmidt of Australia) and revealed many surprising facts about the expansion of the universe.

Her study helps take one step forward in exploring cosmic expansion and also challenges the current model of the universe. This new result contributes significantly to the development of the cosmic "cosmic constants" proposed by Albert Einstein. The existence of a non-zero cosmic constancy means that a counter-force, counter-acting gravity, currently dominates the universal expansion and consequently moves closer to an infinite expanding universe. The new research was titled "Breakthrough of the Year" by the well-known American science journal Science in the December 1, 1979 issue.

The "Original Criteria" of the Universe
All three cosmological models are governed by the three basic parameters of general relativity. That's it
1. The current expansion rate described by Hubble's constant, namely the proportionality factor between the expansion velocity and the distance
2. The average substance density in the universe and
2. The amount of "other energy" in space.

From the measurement value of these basic parameters, the geometry of the age and space of the universe can be obtained.

The lead role of Supernova
Both research teams, with participation by ESO, focused on studying rare stellar explosions. In this process, the explosive nuclear fusion, the most stable nuclear nucleus, burns substances in iron and releases a huge amount of energy.

These explosions, known as supernovae, are distinguished by their very similar qualities, including their inner glow. This makes them ideal for long-distance measurements. For example, all critical distances can be determined with great accuracy through the observation of such remote objects. Specifically, observational missions coordinated with Type I supernovae were carried out in many major laboratories around the world.

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Who Made Universe

We can easily say that how universe made but is so hard to give answer who can be made the universe. God did not create the universe,then who create the universe?
Big bang theory is the one  answer of how universe is made,
The Hubble Ultra Deep Field is a picture of an entire galaxy of about 3,000 galaxies.

The galaxies in the picture are of different shapes, ages and colors. About 8 small red galaxies have been reported so far. It has been estimated to exist for 100 million years. The nearest large, bright, well-known, spherical galaxy has evolved since 3 billion years ago, and it is estimated that the universe is 2 billion years old.The fact that the invisible force or matter (Dark Energy and Dark Matter) is expanding and operating the universe has surprised anyone who searches for space.Here are some amazing and exciting facts about the cosmos in which we live:

How old is the universe

The universe came into being after the Big Bang or the Great Depression. The outbreak is estimated to be around 1.2 billion years ago. (About 100 million years ago or later)Astronomers have calculated this by measuring the density of matter and the density of matter in the universe. This made it easier for them to assess how fast the universe was expanding. As a result, the graduates are said to be able to gain momentum by reaching the point of Bigbang. The age of the universe is determined from the current state of the Great Depression.

The universe is expanding

In 1979, space scientist Edwin Hubbell discovered that the universe was in a constant state of flux. However, there is also the perception that the gravitational pull of cosmic matter is slowing the spread of the universe by linking those substances to one another.In 1969, the Hubble Space Telescope studied the distant supernova (suddenly shining stars), showing that the universe was expanding at a much slower pace than it was a long time ago. This strange fact indicates that an invisible force (Dark Energy) is moving and expanding the universe. It is believed that dark energy or strange forces are still increasing the speed of spreading to any part of the universe. This is a great mystery to science, scientists have also given this power to the elusive power.Mysterious Dark Energy is not only expanding the universe, it is also believed to be conducting every element of the universe at a rapid pace.In 1979, two groups of scientists announced that the universe was not only expanding but also rotating. According to researchers, the farthest galaxy on Earth is moving farther away than other galaxies.Albert Einstein's theory of general relativity also proved that the universe is rotating.Scientists also reevaluated Einstein's theory to understand how the indescribable Dark Energy is resisting gravity and moving the universe at a certain speed.Three scientists have won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1979 for their discovery that the universe is still expanding.

The universe may be darker

The size of the universe depends on the conflict between gravity and the speed of the dispersion. If the density of the universe is based on a certain value, then the universe can close in a sphere. This does not mean that the universe does not extend to eternity but does not have an end. In this case the universe will eventually stop flowing and disappear on its own. That situation is named Big Crunch.
If the density of the universe is less than the value of the adjacent density, the size of the universe will be open. In this case the universe has no boundaries and it can be said that it will continue to expand. If the density of the universe was equal to the density of the universe, then the size of the universe would be as thin as a sheet of paper.Here, the universe has no boundaries and will continue to expand. However, the rate of dispersion will fall to zero over a certain period of time, and current data indicate that the universe may be sharper.

The universe is full of invisible objects

According to researchers, the universe is made of infinite invisible matter. Whatever the information or the visible stars, planets, galaxies, etc., they occupy only about 1 percent of the universe. 90% of the universe consists of substances that are either invisible, or they cannot be easily seen and understood. These mysterious substances, known as Dark Energy or Dark Matter, have not yet been identified. However, researchers have acknowledged the existence of such an invisible substance because of the gravitational effect of the invisible matter on the visible matter in the universe.

The universe is echoing its birth

The microwave background of the Universe is the echo of light and sound emitted after the Big Bang (eruption) of about 3 billion 7 million years ago. As the cosmic radiation cover radiates across the universe, the European Space Agency's Planck mission measured microwave light from the entire sky to determine how the universe began. Researchers are trying to find the answer to the question of what happened to the origin of the universe, using the facts derived from that mission.

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