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Showing posts with label Physics. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Physics. Show all posts

Monday, August 5, 2019

What is Science ?

The background

Today is the era of science and technology. Humans have been using science and technology since ancient timesScience and technology are considered the backbone of the country's development and prosperity. Without its development, the progress of any nation cannot be accelerated. Science helps in the development of technology while standard technology makes science education standard. It is said that if science is a tree, technology is the fruit of its development, so only if science is developed in the country, then necessary techniques can be developed to suit soil within the country. The development of science and technology has changed the lives of people around the world. The United States has become the most powerful nation in the world because of the development of science and technology.


Continuous study knowledge based on the use and observation of a subject or object is called science. Science is a systematic knowledge that establishes and organizes knowledge of testable interpretations and predictions about the universe. Science is part of almost every aspect of our lives. Science is the common heritage of the human race. Science is a remarkable achievement of human heritage. The pursuit of truth is the main goal of science. Science makes something extraordinary possible. In fact, the term science is often used for natural sciences. It includes physics, chemistry and biology. There is a deep connection between nature and science.
In science, scientists first observe. And they ask why this happened. Then begin to hypothesize. According to that hypothesis, many times after experimenting or testing, it eventually becomes a scientific theory. Our Eastern philosophy encompassed much of the imagination, but could not develop its testing equipment. Even though we have the Vedas, science could not be properly developed. Where science is, nature is and nature is, The law of that nature is defined as science. The law of nature or creation is a science of science or study of man. Science cannot create rules of its own, but it does highlight the laws of nature, which are given by science in its own form and are known by the laws of science. Scientists point out that poverty can only be helped if the theoretical and experimental knowledge of science can be applied in practice.


Science is called an insatiable spirit. If people were satisfied, inventions would not happen. Technology is an invention created by unsatisfied minds. Technology is a group of studies or sciences related to practical and industrial arts and applied sciences. Technology is one of the biggest contributors to developing modern civilization and bringing it to its present state. The countries that are technically powerful are the strategic and economically the strongest and even more capable.
Today is the age of technology. The development of time-consuming technology and the education of the countries that consume it, as well as the economic and social sectors, have also seen progress. The use of technology is very different between developed countries and developing nations. The use of information and technology to improve the managerial system, to produce competent and competent manpower, to bridge the gap between access to and lack of information and communication technology, and to encourage continuous and lifelong learning. The use of technology seems to play an important role in narrowing the world and developing it as a global village.

Illustrations of science and technology in Nepal

The development of science and technology is only possible to change the face of any country. For science and technology Nepal and Nepalese have become like "the seed of the scum who knows not the Shrikhand." Without the development of science and technology, it is impossible to imagine the economic prosperity of a country.
The development of science and technology has changed the lives of people around the world. Despite the slogans of "science and technology for nation building", "the foundation of sustainable development of science technology and invention", "the foundation of prosperity of science and technology innovation", "the prosperity of science and technology in the country", even though the Ministry of Science and Technology went ahead with this slogan. The development of the area was restricted to slogans.
But so far in Nepal, the current Ministry of Science and Technology related to science and technology and the Nepal Science and Technology Institute have not been able to define the true sciences. It is a matter of great irony that the scientist in Nepal cannot be defined according to the universally accepted definition of a scientist.


In many developed countries, the government will move forward with advice and suggestions from researchers, experts, scientists, professionals in the fields of science and technology. Taking into account the importance of 'research and development' concept, which is considered as the main engine of economic prosperity and social transformation of developed countries of the world, there is an urgent need to make the country more oriented towards economic prosperity by making maximum development of science and technology in Nepal. It is important to develop technologies that suit our soil to make our country Nepal independent.In the end, it is only a matter of imagination at present to think that a two-thirds majority of the powerful Communist government would combine the Ministry of Science and Technology with the Ministry of Education to create a climate of scientific inquiry and create an internationally scientific environment. It is important that the Government of Nepal receive serious attention in this matter. For the development of science and technology in Nepal, the development of science and technology seems to be possible only if the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology is set up independently and formed the Ministry of Science and Technology. The country must move forward in the path of development and economic prosperity with maximum utilization of science and technology.

Sunday, August 4, 2019

What is a black hole?

Scientists have finally released a photo of a black hole (black hole). Scientists have released the first image of a black hole in the M-7 galaxy (galaxy), some 10 million light years away from Earth.
The image of the black hole we have always imagined. According to Nepali time on Wednesday, the photo, which was made public at 7pm, looks exactly the same as we had imagined.

This black hole is 7.2 billion times larger than the sun. It is the heaviest and largest black hole in the universe. Although the image looks a bit irregular, the bright ring shape is obvious. Even the light does not escape from the black hole. The image made by scientists is a shadow of black. It is not possible to take a realistic picture of a black hole because it does not escape the light.

Astronomers have managed to capture this image with the help of the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT). The Event Horizon Telescope is a network of 6 different telescopes in the world. According to a report published in the Astro Physics Journal Letter, two hundred scientists from 19 institutions in 9 different countries of the world were involved in the work. The purpose of which was to capture a photo of the black hole event Horizon.

Event Horizon is also called Point of No Return, where no object can come out upon arrival. This is a hypothetical surface around a black hole that has been scientifically proven by scientists. Everyone is interested in how it was possible to take a picture of this object far beyond the earth.

Here's how:

The Event Horizon Telescope is a radio telescope. Which is a collective effort of various radio telescopes around the world from which a massive imaginary radio telescope, such as the Earth, was created. It is a joint effort of six radio observatory teams of the world.All radio telescopes were set to the same target. This fictitious telescope was located 4,000 miles away from Earth. This task was very difficult. Scientists have used the 'Atomic Clock' for this. Special consideration was also given to the wavelength.

According to various reports, data from telescopes was estimated to have collected more than 100,000,000 GB. Was processed in Germany. The data obtained were analyzed with the help of a supercomputer.The data was collected on hardium-filled hard disks. Hard disks were sent from the airplane when data was not transmitted via the Internet. It used radio imaging to generate image data from different types of waves.Telescopes are located in different places. It is located in areas where there is no human settlement and the effects of a desolate sky and atmospheric gases are slight. An airborne and volcanic area of ​​Mexico, mountains of the state of Arizona and Sierra Nevada in Spanish and desert in Antarctica and Antarctica in Chile's Ataca.

Symposium of Astro Physics Journal Letter:

Astro Physics Journal has published two papers on the work of the Event Horizon Telescope. The research report contains all the details of the project and the achievements so far.
The first paper contains a picture of a black hole and a summary of achievements. Which contains the complete details of the project and the achievements so far. The second paper describes the series (array) of the Event Horizon Telescope. Which contains observations and telescopes related to the black hole. The paper mentions the observations made using the system, technology and resources built on the Event Horizon Telescope, as well as the details of the progress of the work.

The third paper focuses on the full details of the observations, summarizing the statistics, details of the required protocols and how the conclusions were drawn. The fourth paper describes the methodology for drawing a picture and how it was constructed. The old method of solving the process of mathematical process for image creation and the new mathematical calculation method was adopted by the instrumentalists used in EHT. It took months to test and calculate the figures obtained.The fifth paper describes the general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations used for fine-grained image simulation and the use of Adams ray tracing method for image acquisition and jet launching of black holes.
The sixth paper covers the system used, the substitution of the obtained statistics, the weight of the black hole, and the black hole and its time interval.

'Albert Einstein was right'

According to physicist Udayaraj Khanal, the image obtained showed that scientific confirmation of Albert Einstein was correct. Einstein noted that time and space will end when the power and the body are united in one place.

Which was later interpreted as Singularity by other scientists. In the middle part of the black hole is Singularity, where all power and body are integrated. He said it was covered by Event Horizon.

According to him, Einstein said that the interpretation of space, time and gravity was correct.
Said objects were moving toward the center of the black hole. Like Newton's theory of gravity points to 'point mass', Einstein's theory of relativity points to relativity's point mass. Einstein noted that gravity does not affect the speed of light.
Einstein said that all motions, objects and phenomena in the universe are relative and all are related to the speed of light. According to him, space and space time are not as flat as previously believed, it is rotating. This has again confirmed the geometric etymology of 'space and time' according to Einstein's theory. Earlier it was confirmed that there were gravitational waves.

What is a black hole?

The black hole is an area where the light also disappears. The light is the 'trap'. The black hole draws no object to itself and does not escape. It has the ability to pull an entire solar system into itself. It has a lot of gravitational force. Nothing can reach the event Horizon. The object that reaches there is compressed at the center of it. Udayraj Khanal Astronomer.
Astrophysicist and eighth-century scientist Staph Hawkins did a lot of research on the black hole. He dedicated his life to it. He also mentioned radiation emanating from the black hole. Called Hawking's Radiation.

As the big stars approach the end of their life cycle, they are destroyed and thus become black holes. Where there can be millions of stars, even galaxies. Its density is enormous. Many larger objects are compressed into a smaller object and the gravitational force of these objects is greater.

According to the physicist, Khanal, the substance in the published image was falling into the black hole and there was no light. According to him, the light seen in the picture is a flickering light in the black hole.

'Sun cannot become black hole':

According to the physicist Khanal, the sun could not become a black hole under any circumstances. According to him, the stars weighing 1/3 times the Sun can go into the final phase and become black holes. These stars rotate and become black holes with a high gravitational force. Similarly, objects moving in the sky may become larger and black holes.

According to him, our solar system cannot go to the black hole. The black hole larger than the solar system is millions of light years away from us, and the probability that a black hole is very close to our solar system is very low, he said. According to him it is a fantasy.

Thursday, August 1, 2019

Pluto reintroduced as a planet

Pluto reintroduced as a planet

Pluto, which has long been regarded as a planet, has been declared as a planet in 7 years.
The International Astronomical Union (IU), the body responsible for the classification of objects in the Universe, has just announced Pluto as a major planet.

Long-established and regarded as the ninth planet in our solar system, Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Planet-X have received the same level of re-recognition. Many know that everyone's favorite planet was given the status of asteroids by removing Pluto from the ninth planet of the solar system in the 5th. Due to this decision, Ayu was becoming notorious and omnipresent.

The announcement of Pluto as a full-fledged planet of the Solar System and its asteroid in year 1 had created a huge outcry among the people. From that time the campaign to re-affirm Pluto was re-introduced to the planet, but it did not find success.
However, Ayu has corrected his old decision, mistaking it. Accordingly, Aiu has issued a press release recognizing Pluto, the planet once again filled with ice.
Remember, there were eight planets in the solar system when Pluto was declared an asteroid. But with Pluto again recognized as a planet, the number of planets in the solar system has reached nine. So another planet named Planet X is believed to be in our solar system.

Bacteria are not only carriers of disease, they are also good friends of humans!

Not surprisingly, bacteria are not only carriers of disease, but they are also good friends of humans!

As soon as the bacteria are exposed, we start to think about the terrible diseases. Because of the many dangerous diseases and problems, such as typhus, cholera, leprosy, plague, TB, diphtheria, pneumonia, etc. So it is only natural to scare the bacteria by name. Bacteria are found everywhere
Bacteria can be found in every corner of the earth, in the soil, sea, and even in the frigid snow of Antarctica. Most of them live on plants, in animal bodies. Only a person's body contains more than 3 times the amount of bacteria in his body. Most of them live in the digestive system.

Some bacteria are found in soil or in dead vegetation. These bacteria play an important role in the nutrient regeneration the soil needs.

Some cause food spoilage and damage the farm. But again, foods made from yogurt or alcoholic liquids are a non-essential element of bacteria.
Only a relatively small number of bacteria cause various diseases.

The reproductive process of bacteria
Bacteria reproduce through the 'binary fission' process. In this process, the bacteria that have only one cell are split into two exactly the same child cells. The 'binary fission' begins when the DNA of the bacteria starts to split into two.

The bacterial cell is then elongated and split into two. While both will have the exact type of DNA in the baby's cell, they are the 'clones' of the parent cell.

With the proper temperature and nutrients, bacteria like Escherichia coli can split within 5 minutes. This means that within 1 hour, the bacteria can grow from one to 5, 19, 5.
An hour later, the number of such bacteria reaches 1,4,5,3. So when infectious bacteria invade our bodies, we get sick soon.

The process of living
Some bacteria can form 'indospores'. 'Indospores' are an inactive form of bacteria that have a strong resistance to adverse physical and chemical conditions such as heterogeneous heat, ultra-violet radiation, and germicidal chemicals.

Because of this, it is very difficult to destroy bacteria. Bacteria that produce 'indospore' are endangered. An example of this is the Bacillus anthrax, which is anthrax.
Not all bacteria are bad

    But not all bacteria are bad for humans. So far, there have been around 300 to 2,000 species of bacteria detected in the world. Most of them are infectious, meaning only about 3 bacteria infect us. Such bacteria are called pathogenic bacteria. Other bacteria are harmless to humans. On the contrary, most bacteria are somehow extremely useful to people and nature.

  Bacteria occur in the air, water, and ground everywhere. Even so, it is found in the deepest depths of the oceans. But it cannot be seen with our bare eyes. It's very subtle. Bacteria in size range from 1 to 5 micrometers (equal to twenty-five thousand parts of an inch).

   This picture is of a bacterium known as Disease. The bacterium is named Neisseria meningitides. It causes meningitis and other diseases caused by bacteria. Bacteria act to decay and kill dead organisms and plants.

   Imagine for a moment, what would the world be like if there were no bacteria? The world would be covered with dead creatures and plants!

   Bacteria are eaten by animals and plants. In this way, the bacteria give their complex substances in common. And, the same thing can be found in soil, water, or air, as a living organism or plant can receive it.

We have dinner. Other creatures also eat food. Bacteria also digest the food they eat. There is a lot of bacteria in people's gut. Bacteria in the gut begin to break down and break down food that is broken into the gastric system. At the same time, bacteria produce certain types of vitamins, nutrients, which our bodies absorb.

One type of bacteria in the soil stops nitrogen and makes it nutritious for food. We get food from certain plants. Apart from this, the use of bacteria in yogurt, pickles, cheeses, vinegar making, certain colors, plastic, cosmetics, tobacco, some medicines and some types of yarn, soap is also used.

To sum it all up, people know little about the usefulness of bacteria. In the future, people will certainly find ways to utilize the bacteria in many ways, which is a very useful and humane way.

Wednesday, July 31, 2019

How far is the universe, how far its boundary

Most astronomers claim that the universe formed during an event called the Big Bang. A massive explosion that took place about 1.5 billion years ago. Space, time, matter and energy were all created in the universe during the Big Bangkram.

This massive explosion has thrown matter in all directions. It has also inspired itself to expand the space. As the universe cools down after the explosion, galaxies, stars, and planets are formed by the material in it. There are objects of all kinds and shapes in this universe. Which can be found in everything from the smallest atom to the largest galaxy.

Expansion of the universe
In 1959, Westo Slyfer discovered the concept of cosmic expansion. The evolution of light in distant galaxies was interpreted as Earth's galaxies. In 1959, the Einstein field equation was used by Alexander Friedman to provide theoretical evidence. In which the universe is expanding. In 1959, Georges Lemaitre independently reached the same conclusion as Friedman on a theoretical basis. First observational evidence is presented for a linear relationship between galaxies and their recurrence velocities.

In 1959, American astronomer Edwin Hubble discovered that there was a direct correlation between the speed of galaxies distant from Earth and their distances. It is now known as the Hubble Law. The Hubble Space Telescope was named after him and the single number that describes the rate of cosmic expansion. The apparent and slow velocity of outer galaxies is called the Hubble Constant relative to their distance.

The galaxies are going away
Astronomer Edwin Hubble has provided convincing evidence. That the universe was expanding. Observing the distant galaxies, he saw that it was the outer part. Until recently, cosmology (the science of cosmology) believed that the rate of expansion of the universe was slowing down due to the influence of gravity. According to current research, the universe could expand forever. However, research on this topic is ongoing. A new study of supernovae in distant galaxies and a force called dark energy could modify the potential fate of the universe.

What is the reason for the expansion of the universe?
Since the discovery of the universe's expansion by the measurement of the velocity of the galaxy by American astronomer Edwin Hubble in the 1930s, astronomers have been searching for how this expansion has changed over time. At that time most scientists had considered two possibilities.

1) The rate of expansion is slow and it is either interrupted. The Universe then starts contracting.

2) It will continue to expand forever.

In 1979, two separate teams of astronomers studied a distant supernova (the one led by US Saul Perlmutter and the other by Nick Sanchez and Brian Schmidt of Australia) and revealed many surprising facts about the expansion of the universe.

Her study helps take one step forward in exploring cosmic expansion and also challenges the current model of the universe. This new result contributes significantly to the development of the cosmic "cosmic constants" proposed by Albert Einstein. The existence of a non-zero cosmic constancy means that a counter-force, counter-acting gravity, currently dominates the universal expansion and consequently moves closer to an infinite expanding universe. The new research was titled "Breakthrough of the Year" by the well-known American science journal Science in the December 1, 1979 issue.

The "Original Criteria" of the Universe
All three cosmological models are governed by the three basic parameters of general relativity. That's it
1. The current expansion rate described by Hubble's constant, namely the proportionality factor between the expansion velocity and the distance
2. The average substance density in the universe and
2. The amount of "other energy" in space.

From the measurement value of these basic parameters, the geometry of the age and space of the universe can be obtained.

The lead role of Supernova
Both research teams, with participation by ESO, focused on studying rare stellar explosions. In this process, the explosive nuclear fusion, the most stable nuclear nucleus, burns substances in iron and releases a huge amount of energy.

These explosions, known as supernovae, are distinguished by their very similar qualities, including their inner glow. This makes them ideal for long-distance measurements. For example, all critical distances can be determined with great accuracy through the observation of such remote objects. Specifically, observational missions coordinated with Type I supernovae were carried out in many major laboratories around the world.

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